Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are two types of problem drinking.
Alcoholism is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You also may have a physical dependence on alcohol. This means that you need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause
Alcohol abuse is when your drinking leads to problems, but you are not physically dependent on alcohol. These problems may occur:
- At work, school, or home
- In your personal relationships
- With the law
- From using alcohol in dangerous situations, such as drinking and driving
Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction
No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that it may be a combination of a person’s:
- Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self-esteem
Drinking a lot of alcohol can put you at risk for alcohol problems. You are more at risk for alcoholism if:
- You are a man who has 15 or more drinks a week
- You are a woman who has 12 or more drinks a week
- You have five or more drinks at a time at least once a week
One drink is defined as a 12-ounce bottle of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a 1 1/2-ounce shot of liquor.
If you have a parent with alcoholism, you are more at risk for alcohol problems.
You also may be more likely to abuse alcohol or become dependent if:
- You are a young adult under peer pressure
- You have depression,
bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, or schizophrenia
- You have easy access to alcohol
- You have low self-esteem
- You have problems with relationships
- You live a stressful lifestyle
Alcohol abuse is on the rise. In the U.S., about 3 out of 10 people drink at a level that puts them at risk for alcoholism.
If you are concerned about your drinking, it may help to take a careful look at your
If you have a drinking problem, you may:
- Continue to drink, even when your health, work, or family are being harmed
- Drink alone
- Become stirred up, excited, or tense when drinking
- Become hostile when asked about your drinking
- Make excuses to drink
- Miss work or school, or don’t perform as well because of drinking
- Stop taking part in activities you enjoy because of alcohol
- Need to use alcohol on most days to get through the day
- Don’t eat a lot or eat poorly
- Not care about how you dress or if you are clean
- Try to hide alcohol use
- Shake in the morning or after periods when you have not had a drink
Symptoms of alcohol dependence include:
- Needing more and more alcohol to feel drunk
Alcohol withdrawal symptomswhen you haven’t had a drink for a while
- Illnesses from alcohol use, such as
alcoholic liver disease
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will:
- Examine you
- Ask questions about your medical and family history
- Ask about your alcohol use
These questions from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism can help screen for an alcohol problem:
- Do you ever drive when you have been drinking?
- Do you have to drink more than before to get drunk or feel the desired effect?
- Have you felt that you should cut down on your drinking?
- Have you ever had any blackouts after drinking?
- Have you ever missed work or lost a job because of drinking?
- Is someone in your family worried about your drinking?
Your health care provider may order tests to check for health problems that are common in people who abuse alcohol. These tests may include:
- Blood alcohol level (This shows if you have recently been drinking alcohol. It does not diagnose alcoholism.)
Complete blood count Liver function tests Magnesium blood test
Many people with an alcohol problem need to completely stop using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier to quit drinking.
Some people are able to just cut back on their drinking. So even if you don’t give up alcohol altogether, you may be able to
However, many people who drink too much find they can’t just cut back. Abstinence may be the only way to manage a drinking problem.
DECIDING TO QUIT
Like many people with an alcohol problem, you may not recognize that your drinking has gotten out of hand. An important first step is to be aware of
Depending on how much and how long you’ve been drinking, you may be at risk for
Alcohol recovery or support programs can help you stop drinking completely. These programs usually offer:
- Education about alcoholism and its effects
- Counseling and therapy to discuss how to control your thoughts and behaviors
- Physical health care
For the best chance of success, you should live with people who support your efforts to avoid alcohol. Some programs offer housing options for people with alcohol problems. Depending on your needs and the programs that are available:
- You may be treated in a special recovery center (inpatient)
- You may attend a program while you live at home (outpatient)
You may be prescribed medicines to help you quit. They are often used with long-term counseling or support groups.
These drugs make it less likely that you will drink again or help limit the amount you drink.
- Acamprosate may help prevent relapse.
- Disulfiram (Antabuse) produces very unpleasant side effects if you drink even a small amount of alcohol.
- Naltrexone (Vivitrol) decreases alcohol cravings. It is available in a pill or as an injection.
Drinking may mask
depression or other mood or anxiety disorders. If you have a mood disorder, it may become more noticeable when you stop drinking. Your health care provider will treat any mental disorders in addition to your alcohol treatment.
ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA)
Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of recovering alcoholics. Meetings offer emotional support and specific steps for people recovering from alcohol abuse or dependence. The program is commonly called a “12-step” approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day.
Family members of a person with an alcohol problem often benefit from talking with others. Al-Anon is a support group for people who are affected by another person’s drinking problem.
Alateen provides support for teenage children of people with alcoholism.
OTHER SUPPORT GROUPS
Several other support groups are available.
- SMART recovery teaches ways to change thoughts and behaviors to help people recover from alcoholism.
- LifeRing recovery and Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS) are two non-religious programs that offer support for people with alcoholism.
- Women for Sobriety is a self-help group just for women.
- Moderation Management is a program for those who want to reduce how much they drink. It recommends abstinence for people who cannot do this.
How well a person with alcoholism or alcohol abuse does depends on whether they can successfully cut back or stop drinking.
It may take several tries to stop drinking for good. If you are struggling to quit, don’t give up hope. Getting treatment, if needed, along with support and encouragement from support groups and those around you can help you remain sober.
Alcoholism and alcohol abuse can increase your risk of many health problems, including:
- Bleeding in the digestive tract
- Brain cell damage
- A brain disorder called
- Cancer of the esophagus, liver, colon, and other areas
- Changes in the menstrual cycle
- Delirium tremens (DTs)
Dementiaand memory loss Depressionand suicide
- Erectile dysfunction
- Heart damage
- High blood pressure
- Inflammation of the pancreas (
- Liver disease, including
cirrhosis Nerve damage
- Poor nutrition
- Sleeping problems (insomnia)
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Alcohol use also increases your risk for violence.
Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can lead to severe birth defects in the baby. This is called fetal alcohol syndrome.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Talk with your doctor if you or someone you know may have an alcohol problem.
Seek immediate medical care or call your local emergency number (such as 911) if you or someone you know has alcohol dependence and develops severe confusion, seizures, or bleeding.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recommends:
- Women should not drink more than 1 drink per day
- Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day
Related:Pancreatitis – discharge, Cirrhosis – discharge, Liver disease, Alcohol use and safe drinking, Acute pancreatitis, Alcoholic neuropathy, Bleeding esophageal varices, Cirrhosis, Depression, Cancer, Suicide and suicidal behavior, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome