Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium).
Valve infection; Staphylococcus aureus – endocarditis; Enterococcus – endocarditis; Streptococcus viridans – endocarditis; Candida – endocarditis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Endocarditis can involve the heart muscle, heart valves, or lining of the heart. Most people who develop endocarditis have a:
Birth defect of the heart
- Damaged or abnormal heart valve
- History of endocarditis
- New heart valve after surgery
Endocarditis begins when different germs enter the bloodstream and then travel to the heart.
- Bacterial infection is the most common cause of endocarditis.
- Endocarditis can also be caused by fungi, such as Candida.
- In some cases, no cause can be found.
Germs are most likely to enter the bloodstream during:
Central venous access lines
- Injection drug use, from the use of unclean (unsterile) needles
- Recent dental surgery
- Other surgeries or minor procedures to the breathing tract, urinary tract, infected skin, or bones and muscles
Symptoms of endocarditis may develop slowly or suddenly.
Fever, chills, and sweating are the classic symptoms. These sometimes can:
- Be present for days before any other symptoms appear
- Come and go, or be more noticeable at nighttime
Fatigue, weakness, and aches and pains in the muscles or joints may also be present.
Other symptoms can include:
- Small areas of bleeding under the nails (
- Red, painless skin spots on the palms and soles (Janeway lesions)
- Red, painful nodes in the pads of the fingers and toes (Osler’s nodes)
Shortness of breathwith activity
- Swelling of feet, legs, abdomen
Signs and tests
The health care provider may detect a new
An eye exam may show bleeding in the retina and a central area of clearing. This is known as Roth’s spots. There may be small, pinpoint areas of bleeding on the surface of the eye or the eyelids.
Tests that may be done include:
Blood culture— helps identify the bacteria or fungus that is causing the infection Complete blood count(CBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), or erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)
- A routine
echocardiogramor a transesophageal echocardiogramprovides a closer look at the heart valves
You may need to be hospitalized at first to receive antibiotics through a vein (IV or intravenously). Blood cultures and tests will help your health care provider choose the best antibiotic.
You will then need long-term antibiotic therapy.
- Patients usually need therapy for 4-6 weeks to fully remove all the bacteria from the heart chambers and valves.
- Antibiotic treatments that are started in the hospital will need to be continued at home.
Surgery to replace the heart valve is usually needed when:
The infection is breaking off in little pieces, resulting in strokes
The person develops heart failure as a result of damaged heart valves
There is evidence of more severe organ damage
Getting treatment for endocarditis right away improves the chances of a good outcome.
More serious problems that may develop include:
- Further damage to the heart valves, causing heart failure
- Spread of the infection to other parts of the body
- Stroke, caused by small clots or pieces of the infection breaking off and traveling to the brain
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you notice the following symptoms during or after treatment:
- Blood in urine
- Chest pain
- Weight loss without change in diet
The American Heart Association recommends preventive antibiotics for people at risk for infectious endocarditis, such as those with:
- Certain birth defects of the heart
- Heart transplant and valve problems
- Man-made (prosthetic) heart valves
- Past history of endocarditis
These patients should receive antibiotics when they have:
- Dental procedures that are likely to cause bleeding
- Procedures involving the breathing tract
- Procedures involving the urinary tract system
- Procedures involving the digestive tract
- Procedures on skin infections and soft tissue infections
Related:Heart valve surgery – discharge , Culture-negative endocarditis, Blood clots, Arrhythmias, Atrial fibrillation or flutter, Glomerulonephritis, Stroke, Brain abscess, Gonorrhea, Aortic valve surgery – minimally invasive, Aortic valve surgery – open, Mitral valve surgery – minimally invasive, Mitral valve surgery – open