This lab test measures the levels of the different types of the oxygen-carrying protein (
Hb electrophoresis; Hgb electrophoresis; Electrophoresis – hemoglobin
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed.
At the lab, the technician places the blood sample on special paper and applies an electric current. The hemoglobins move on the paper and form bands that show the amount of each type of hemoglobin.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is necessary for this test.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
You may have this test if your health care provider suspects that you have a disorder caused by abnormal forms of hemoglobin (
Many different types of hemoglobin (Hb) exist. The most common ones are HbA, HbA2, HbF, HbS, HbC, Hb H, and Hb M. Healthy adults only have significant levels of HbA and HbA2.
Some people may also have small amounts of HbF. This is the main type of hemoglobin in an unborn baby’s body. Certain diseases are associated with high HbF levels (when HbF is more than 2% of the total hemoglobin).
HbS is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with
HbC is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with
Other, less common, abnormal Hb molecules cause
In adults, these hemoglobin molecules make up the following percentages of total hemoglobin:
- Hb A: 95% to 98%
- Hb A2: 2% to 3%
- Hb F: 0.8% to 2%
- Hb S: 0%
- Hb C: 0%
In infants and children, these hemoglobin molecules make up the following percentages of total hemoglobin:
- Hb F (newborn): 50% to 80%
- Hb F (6 months): 8%
- Hb F (over 6 months): 1% to 2%
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
The presence of significant levels of abnormal hemoglobins may indicate:
- Hemoglobin C disease
- Rare hemoglobinopathy
- Sickle cell anemia
Thalassemia(inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin)
You may have false normal or abnormal results if you have had a blood transfusion within 12 weeks of the this test.
There is very little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling light-headed
- Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)