Mononeuropathy is damage to a single nerve or nerve group, which results in
Neuropathy; Isolated mononeuritis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Mononeuropathy is a type of damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord (
Mononeuropathy is most often caused by injury, although body-wide (
Long-term pressure on a nerve due to swelling or injury can result in mononeuropathy. The covering of the nerve (
Mononeuropathy may involve any part of the body. Some of the common forms of mononeuropathy include:
Axillary nerve dysfunction
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction
Carpal tunnel syndrome(median nerve dysfunction)
Cranial mononeuropathy III; compression type
Cranial mononeuropathy III; diabetic type Cranial mononeuropathy VI
- Cranial mononeuropathy VII (facial paralysis)
Femoral nerve dysfunction Radial nerve dysfunction Sciatic nerve dysfunction(sciatica) Ulnar nerve dysfunction(cubital tunnel syndrome)
Symptoms depend on the specific nerve affected, and may include:
Loss of sensation Paralysis Tingling, burning, pain, abnormal sensations Weakness
Signs and tests
A detailed medical history is needed to determine the possible cause of the disorder. An examination and nerve and muscle testing may show a loss of feeling, movement, or other problems with a specific nerve. Reflexes may be abnormal.
Tests may include:
Electromyogram(EMG) — a recording of electrical activity in muscles Nerve conduction tests(NCV) — recording the speed of electrical activity in the nerves Nerve biopsy
- Nerve ultrasound
Other tests may include:
- Antinuclear antibody panel (
- Blood chemistry tests
- Imaging scans, such as
MRIor CT scan Rheumatoid factor Sedimentation rate
- Thyroid tests
The goal of treatment is to allow you to use the affected body part as much as possible.
The cause of the mononeuropathy should be identified and treated as appropriate. Sometimes, no treatment is needed and you will get better on your own.
High blood pressure and diabetes can injure an artery, which can often affect a single nerve. The underlying condition should be treated.
Corticosteroids injected into the area may reduce
Over-the-counter or prescription pain medicine may be needed to control pain (
Prescription medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or antidepressants such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or duloxetine may be used to reduce stabbing pains. Whenever possible, avoid or minimize the use of these drugs to reduce the risk of medication side effects.
Physical therapy exercises to maintain muscle strength
splints, or other appliances
Vocational counseling, occupational therapy, occupational changes, job retraining
Mononeuropathy may be disabling and painful. If the cause of the nerve dysfunction can be found and successfully treated, a full recovery is possible and even likely in some cases.
The amount of disability varies from no disability to partial or complete loss of movement or sensation.
- Deformity, loss of tissue mass
- Medication side effects
- Repeated or unnoticed injury to the affected area due to lack of sensation
Avoiding pressure or traumatic injury may prevent many forms of mononeuropathy. Treating conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes also decreases your risk of developing the condition.