Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. This condition is common in premature babies.
Any disorder that leads to high levels of calcium in the blood or urine may lead to nephrocalcinosis. In nephrocalcinosis, calcium deposits form in the kidney tissue itself. Most of the time, both kidneys are affected.
Nephrocalcinosis is related to, but not the same as,
Conditions that can cause nephrocalcinosis include:
Alport syndome Bartter syndrome
- Familial hypomagnesemia
- Medullary sponge kidney
- Primary hyperoxaluria
- Renal transplant rejection
Renal tubular acidosis Renalcortical necrosis
Other possible causes of nephrocalcinosis include:
Ethylene glycol toxicity
Hypercalcemia(excess calcium in the blood) due to hyperparathyroidism
Use of certain medications, such as acetazolamide, amphotericin B, and triamterene
Tuberculosisof the kidney and infections related to AIDS
Vitamin D toxicity
There are generally no early symptoms of nephrocalcinosis beyond those of the condition causing the problem.
People who also have kidney stones may have:
Blood in the urine
- Fever and chills
- Nausea and vomiting
- Severe pain in the belly area, sides of the back (flank), groin, or testicles
Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with
Exams and Tests
Nephrocalcinosis may be discovered when symptoms of
Imaging tests can help diagnose this condition. Tests that may be done include:
Abdominal CT scan Ultrasoundof the kidney
Other tests that may be done to diagnose and determine the severity of associated disorders include:
Blood tests to check levels of calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and parathyroid hormone
Urinalysisto see crystals and check for red blood cells
24-hour urine collection to measure acidity and levels of calcium, sodium, uric acid, oxalate, and citrate
The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent more calcium from collecting in the kidneys.
Treatment will involve methods to reduce abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, and oxalate in the blood and urine.
If you take medicine that causes calcium loss, your doctor will usually tell you to stop taking it. Never stop taking any medicine before talking to your doctor.
Other symptoms, included kidney stones, should be treated as appropriate.
What to expect depends on the complications and cause of the disorder.
Proper treatment may help prevent further deposits in the kidneys. However, there is usually no way to remove deposits that have already formed. Extensive deposits of calcium in the kidneys do NOT always mean severe damage to the kidneys.
Acute renal failure Chronic renal failure Kidney stones Obstructive uropathy(acute or chronic, unilateral or bilateral)
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you know you have a disorder that causes high levels of calcium in your blood and urine, or if you develop symptoms of nephrocalcinosis.
Prompt treatment of disorders that lead to nephrocalcinosis, including
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