Orchitis is swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the
Epididymo – orchitis; Testis infection
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Orchitis may be caused by an infection from many different types of bacteria and viruses.
The most common virus that causes orchitis is
Orchitis may also occur along with infections of the prostate or epididymis.
Orchitis may be caused by sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as
Risk factors for sexually transmitted orchitis include:
High-risk sexual behaviors
Multiple sexual partners
Personal history of gonorrhea or another STD
Sexual partner with a diagnosed STD
Risk factors for orchitis not due to an STD include:
- Being older than age 45
- Long-term use of a
- Not being vaccinated against the mumps
- Problems of the urinary tract that occurred at birth (congenital)
urinary tract infections
- Surgery of the urinary tract (genitourinary surgery)
- Blood in the semen
- Discharge from penis
Fever Groin pain
- Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
Pain with urination(dysuria) Scrotal swelling
- Tender, swollen groin area on affected side
- Tender, swollen, heavy feeling in the testicle
Testicle painthat is made worse by a bowel movement or straining
Signs and tests
A physical examination may show:
Enlarged or tender prostate gland
enlarged lymph nodesin the groin (inguinal) area on the affected side
Tender and enlarged testicle on the affected side
Tests may include:
Complete blood count (
Tests to screen for chlamydia and gonorrhea (urethral smear)
Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)— may need several samples, including initial stream, midstream, and after prostate massage
Treatments may include:
Antibiotics — if the infection is caused by bacteria (in the case of gonorrhea or chlamydia, sexual partners must also be treated)
Bed rest with the scrotum elevated and ice packs applied to the area
Getting the right diagnosis and treatment for orchitis caused by bacteria can usually preserve the normal testicle function.
If the testicle does not completely return to normal after treatment, further testing to rule out testicular cancer should be done.
Mumps orchitis cannot be treated, and the outcome can vary. Men who have had mumps orchitis can become sterile.
Some boys who get orchitis caused by mumps will have shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy).
Orchitis may also cause
Other potential complications include:
Death of testicle tissue (testicular infarction)
Fistulaon the skin of the scrotum (cutaneous scrotal fistula)
Calling your health care provider
All testicle problems should be examined by a health care provider.
Call your local emergency number (such as 911) or go to the nearest emergency room if you have sudden pain in the testicle.
Getting vaccinated against mumps will prevent mumps-associated orchitis. Safer sex behaviors, such as having only one partner at a time (monogamy) and condom use, will decrease the chance of developing orchitis as a result of a STI.