Pleural fluid analysis is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called
How the Test is Performed
A procedure called
- Cancerous (malignant) cells
- Cellular makeup
- Chemical content
- Tiny organisms (microorganisms) that can cause disease
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is needed before the test. A
Do not cough, breathe deeply, or move during the test to avoid injury to the lung.
Tell your doctor if you take medicines to thin the blood.
How the Test will Feel
For thoracentesis, you sit on the edge of a chair or bed with your head and arms resting on a table. The health care provider cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anesthetic) is injected into the skin.
A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.
During the test, tell your health care provider if you have sharp chest pain or shortness of breath.
Why the Test is Performed
The test is performed to determine the cause of a pleural effusion. It is also done to relieve the shortness of breath that a large pleural effusion can cause.
Normally the pleural cavity contains less than 20 milliliters (4 teaspoons) of clear, yellowish (serous) fluid.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Abnormal results may indicate possible causes of pleural effusion, such as:
Abnormal connections between the pleural space and other organs (for example, the esophagus)
If the health care provider suspects an infection, a
The test may also be performed for
Risks of thoracentesis are:
- Collapsed lung (
- Excessive loss of blood
- Fluid re-accumulation
Pulmonary edema Respiratory distress
Serious complications are uncommon.