Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting to the lungs and into the blood.
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema; Increased-permeability pulmonary edema; Stiff lung; Shock lung; ARDS; Acute lung injury
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
ARDS can be caused by any major injury to the lung. Some common causes include:
Breathing vomit into the lungs (aspiration)
(infection throughout the body)
ARDS leads to a buildup of fluid in the air sacs. This fluid prevents enough oxygen from passing into the bloodstream.
The fluid buildup also makes the lungs heavy and stiff, and decreases the lungs’ ability to expand. The level of oxygen in the blood can stay dangerously low, even if the person receives oxygen from a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator) through a breathing tube (endotracheal tube).
ARDS often occurs along with the failure of other organ systems, such as the liver or kidneys. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use may be risk factors.
- Difficulty breathing
- Low blood pressure and organ failure
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath
Symptoms usually develop within 24 to 48 hours of the injury or illness. Often, people with ARDS are so sick they cannot complain of symptoms.
Signs and tests
Listening to the chest with a stethoscope (
Tests used to diagnose ARDS include:
Arterial blood gas
Blood tests, including
CBCand blood chemistries
Chest x-ray Sputum culturesand analysis
- Tests for possible infections
Typically people with ARDS need to be in an intensive care unit (ICU).
The goal of treatment is to provide breathing support and treat the cause of ARDS. This may involve medications to treat infections, reduce inflammation, and remove fluid from the lungs.
A breathing machine is used to deliver high doses of oxygen and continued pressure called PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) to the damaged lungs. Patients often need to be deeply sedated with medications when using this equipment. Some research suggests that giving medications to temporarily paralyze a person with ARDS will increase the chance of recovery.
Treatment continues until you are well enough to breathe on your own.
Many family members of people with ARDS are under extreme stress. Often they can relieve this stress by joining support groups where members share common experiences and problems.
About a third of people with ARDS die from the disease. Those who live usually get back most of their normal lung function, but many people have permanent (usually mild) lung damage.
Many people who survive ARDS have memory loss or other quality-of-life problems after they recover. This is due to brain damage that occurred when the lungs weren’t working properly and the brain wasn’t getting enough oxygen.
- Failure of many organ systems
- Lung damage (such as a collapsed lung–also called
pneumothorax) due to injury from the breathing machine needed to treat the disease Pulmonary fibrosis
(scarring of the lung)
Calling your health care provider
Usually, ARDS occurs during another illness, for which the patient is already in the hospital. Occasionally, a healthy person may develop severe pneumonia that gets worse and becomes ARDS. If you have trouble breathing, call your local emergency number (such as 911) or go to the emergency room.
Related:Colds and the flu – what to ask your doctor – child, Colds and the flu – what to ask your doctor – adult, When your baby or infant has a fever, Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Collapsed lung (Pneumothorax), Flu, Avian influenza, H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)