Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry
Acute cholecystitis Choledocholithiasis Gallstones
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
When the bile ducts become blocked, bile builds up in the liver, and jaundice (yellow color of the skin) develops due to the increasing levels of bilirubin in the blood.
The possible causes of a blocked bile duct include:
- Cysts of the common bile duct
- Enlarged lymp nodes in the porta hepatis
- Inflammation of the bile ducts
- Narrowing of the bile ducts from scarring
- Injury from gallbladder surgery
- Tumors of the bile ducts or pancreas
- Tumors that have spread to the
The risk factors include:
- History of gallstones,
chronic pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer
- Injury to the abdominal area
- Recent biliary cancer (such as
bile duct cancer)
The blockage can also be caused by infections. This is more common in persons with weakened immune systems.
Abdominal painin the upper right side Dark urine Fever Itching
- Jaundice (yellow skin color)
- Nausea and vomiting
Signs and tests
Your doctor or nurse will examine you and feel your belly.
The following blood test results could be due to a possible blockage:
- Increased bilirubin level
- Increased alkaline phosphatase level
- Increased liver enzymes
The following tests may be used to investigate a possible blocked bile duct:
Abdominal ultrasound Abdominal CT scan
- ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram(PTCA)
- Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
A blocked bile duct may also alter the results of the following tests:
- Amylase blood test
Gallbladder radionuclide scan
- Lipase blood test
- Prothrombin time (PT)
The goal of treatment is to relieve the blockage. Stones may be removed using an endoscope during an ERCP.
In some cases, surgery is required to bypass the blockage. The gallbladder will usually be surgically removed if the blockage is caused by gallstones. Your health care provider may prescribe antibiotics if an infection is suspected.
If the blockage is caused by cancer, the duct may need to be widened. This procedure is called endoscope or percutaneous (through the skin next to the liver) dilation. A tube may need to be placed to allow drainage.
If the blockage is not corrected, it can lead to life-threatening infection and a dangerous buildup of bilirubin.
If the blockage lasts a long time, chronic
Left untreated, the possible complications include infections,
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you notice a change in the color of your urine and stools or you develop jaundice.
Be aware of any risk factors you have, so that you can get prompt diagnosis and treatment if a bile duct becomes blocked. The blockage itself may not be preventable.