Blockage of the upper airway occurs when the upper breathing passages become narrowed or blocked, making it hard to breathe. Areas in the upper airway that can be affected are the windpipe (trachea), voice box (larynx) or throat (pharynx).
Airway obstruction – acute upper
The airway can become narrowed or blocked due to various causes, including:
Allergic reactionsin which the trachea or throat swell closed, including allergic reactions to a bee sting, peanuts, antibiotics (such as penicillin), and blood pressure medications (such as ACE inhibitors)
Chemical burnsand reactions
Epiglottitis(infection of the structure separating the trachea from the esophagus)
Fire or burns from breathing in smoke
Foreign bodies such as peanuts and other breathed-in foods, pieces of a balloon, buttons, coins, and small toys
Infections of the upper airway area
Injury to the upper airway area
Peritonsillar abscess(collection of infected material near the tonsils)
Retropharyngeal abscess(collection of infected material in the back of the airway)
Tracheomalacia(weakness of the cartilage that supports the trachea)
Vocal cord problems
Symptoms vary depending on the cause. But some symptoms are common to all types of airway blockage.
Bluish color to the skin (
Changes in consciousness Choking
- Gasping for air
Unconsciousness Wheezing, crowing, whistling, or other unusual breathing noises indicating breathing difficulty
Exams and Tests
The health care provider will do a physical examination, which may show:
Decreased breath sounds in the lungs
Rapid, shallow, or slowed breathing
Tests are usually not necessary, but may include:
Treatment depends on the cause of the blockage.
- Objects stuck in the airway may be removed with special instruments.
- A tube may be inserted into the airway (
endotracheal tube) to help with breathing.
- Sometimes an opening is made through the neck into the airway (
If the obstruction is due to a foreign body, such as a piece of food that has been breathed in, doing abdominal thrusts can save the person’s life.
Prompt treatment is often successful. But the condition is dangerous and may be fatal, even when treated.
If the obstruction is not relieved, it can cause:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Airway obstruction is often an emergency. Call 911 or the local emergency number for medical help. Follow instructions on how to help keep the person breathing until help arrives.
It is a good idea to learn how to clear an airway of a foreign body by using a method such as abdominal thrusts.
Prevention depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction.
The following methods may help prevent an obstruction:
Eat slowly and chew food completely.
Do not drink too much alcohol before or while eating.
Keep small objects away from young children.
Make sure dentures fit properly.