Cystinuria is a rare condition in which stones made from an amino acid called cystine form in the kidney, ureter, and bladder. The condition is passed down through families.
Stones – cystine; Cystine stones
To have the symptoms of cystinuria, you must inherit the faulty gene from both parents. Your children will also inherit a copy of the faulty gene from you.
Cystinuria is caused by too much of an
About one in every 10,000 people have cystinuria. Cystine stones are most common in young adults under age 40. Less than 3% of
Blood in the urine Flank painor pain in the side or back. Pain is usually on one side; it is rarely felt on both sides. Pain is often severe. It may get worse over days. You may also feel pain in the pelvis, groin, genitals, or between the upper abdomen and back.
Exams and Tests
The disorder is usually diagnosed after an episode of kidney stones. Testing the stones shows that they are made of cystine.
Tests that may be done to detect stones and diagnose this condition include:
24-hour urine collection
Abdominal CT scan, MRI, or ultrasound
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) Urinalysis
The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent more stones. A person with severe symptoms may need to be admitted to a hospital.
Treatment involves drinking plenty of fluids, especially water, to produce large amounts of urine. You should drink at least 6 – 8 glasses per day.
In some cases, fluids may need to be given through a vein (by IV).
Medications may be prescribed to help dissolve the cystine crystals. Eating less salt can also decrease cystine release and stone formation.
You may need pain relievers to control pain in the kidney or bladder area when you pass stones. Smaller stones usually pass through the urine on their own. Larger stones may need extra treatments. Some large stones may need to be removed with surgery:
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) — Sound waves are passed through the body and are focused on the stones to break them into small, passable fragments. ESWL may not work well for cystine stones because they are very hard as compared with other types of stones.
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy or nephrolithotomy— A small tube is placed through the flank directly into the kidney. A telescope is then passed through the tube to fragment the stone under direct vision.
Ureteroscopy, for stones in the lower urinary tract.
Cystinuria is a
Bladder injuryfrom stone Kidney injuryfrom stone
- Kidney infection
- Ureteral obstruction
- Urinary tract infection
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of urinary tract stones.
There are medications that can be taken so cystine does not form a stone. Ask your health care provider about these medications and their side effects. Any person with a known history of stones in the urinary tract should drink plenty of fluids to regularly produce a high amount of urine. This allows stones and crystals to leave the body before they become large enough to cause symptoms.
Related:Kidney stones – what to ask your doctor, Kidney stones – self-care, Kidney stones – lithotripsy – discharge, Percutaneous urinary procedures – discharge, Amino acids, Kidney stones, Bladder stones, Injury – kidney and ureter, Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra, Percutaneous urinary procedures