End-stage kidney disease is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body’s needs. The kidneys remove waste and excess water from the body.
Renal failure – end stage; Kidney failure – end stage; ESRD
End-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is when the
The most common causes of ESRD in the U.S. are
ESRD almost always comes after
Common symptoms may include:
General ill feelingand fatigue
- Itching (
pruritus) and dry skin Headaches
- Weight loss without trying
- Loss of appetite
Other symptoms may include:
- Abnormally dark or light skin
- Nail changes
- Bone pain
- Problems concentrating or thinking
- Numbness in the hands, feet, or other areas
Muscle twitchingor cramps
- Breath odor
- Easy bruising, nosebleeds, or blood in the stool
- Excessive thirst
- Problems with sexual function
- Menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea)
- Sleep problems
- Swelling of the feet and hands (
edema) Vomiting, often in the morning
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will perform a physical exam and order blood tests. Most people with this condition have high blood pressure.
Patients with end-stage kidney disease will make much less urine, or urine production may stop.
End-stage kidney disease changes the results of many tests. Patients receiving dialysis will need these and other tests done often:
Potassium Sodium Albumin Phosphorous Calcium
Magnesium Complete blood count(CBC) Electrolytes
This disease may also change the results of the following tests:
Erythropoietin PTH Bone density test
- Remove extra salt, water, and waste products so they don’t build up in your body
- Keep safe levels of minerals and vitamins in your body
- Help control blood pressure
- Help produce red blood cells
Your health care provider will discuss dialysis with you before you need it. Dialysis removes waste from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do their job.
- Usually, you will go on dialysis when you have only 10 – 15 % of your kidney function left.
- Even people who are waiting for a kidney transplant may need dialysis while waiting.
Two different methods are used to perform dialysis:
- During hemodialysis, your blood passes through a tube into an artificial kidney, or filter.
- During peritoneal dialysis, a special solution passes into your belly though a catheter tube. The solution remains in your abdomen for period of time and then is removed. This method can be done at home, at work, or while traveling.
You may need to follow a special
- Eat a low-protein diet.
- Get enough calories if you are losing weight.
- Limit fluids.
- Limit salt, potassium, phosphorous, and other electrolytes.
Other treatment depends on your symptoms but may include:
- Extra calcium and vitamin D (always talk to your doctor before taking supplements)
- Medicines called phosphate binders, to help prevent phosphorous levels from becoming too high
- Treatment for anemia, such as extra iron in the diet, iron pills or shots, shots of a medicine called erythropoietin, and blood transfusions.
- Medicines to control your blood pressure
You should be up-to-date on important vaccinations, including:
Hepatitis A vaccine Hepatitis B vaccine Flu vaccine Pneumonia vaccine (PPV)
Some people get benefit from taking part in a
End-stage kidney disease leads to death if you do not have dialysis or a kidney transplant. However, both of these treatments can have risks. The outcome is different for each person.
- Bleeding from the stomach or intestines
- Bone, joint, and muscle pain
- Changes in blood sugar (glucose)
Damage to nerves of the legs and arms Fluid buildup around the lungs High blood pressure, heart attack, and heart failure High potassium levels
- Increased risk of infection
- Liver damage or failure
- Miscarriages or infertility
- Restless legs syndrome
Stroke, seizures, and dementia
- Swelling and edema
- Weakening of the bones and fractures related to high phosphorous and low calcium levels