Gynecomastia is the growth of abnormally large breasts in males. It is due to the excess growth of breast tissue, not excess fat tissue.
Breast development in a male
The condition may occur in one or both breasts and begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. The breasts often enlarge unevenly. Gynecomastia during puberty is not uncommon and usually goes away over a period of months.
In newborns, breast development may be associated with milk flow (
Androgens are hormones that create male characteristics, such as hair growth, muscle size, and a deep voice. Estrogens are hormones that create female characteristics. All men have both androgens and estrogens.
Changes in the levels of these hormones, or in how the body uses or responds to these hormones can cause enlarged breasts in men.
More than half of boys develop gynecomastia during puberty.
Other causes include:
- Chronic liver disease
- Exposure to anabolic steroid hormones
- Exposure to estrogen hormone
Kidney failureand dialysis
- Lack (deficiency) of testosterone (male hormone)
- Hormone treatment for
prostate cancer Radiationtreatment of the testicles
- Side effects of some medications (ketoconazole, spironolactone, metronidazole, cimetidine (Tagamet))
Rare causes include:
One-sided breast growth
Firm or hard breast lump that feels like it is attached to the tissue
Skin sore over the breast
Bloody discharge from the nipple
Apply cold compresses and use pain relievers (
Other tips include:
Stop taking all recreational drugs, such as marijuana
Stop taking all nutritional supplements or any drugs you are taking for bodybuilding
Call your health care provider if
Call your health care provider if:
You have recent swelling, pain, or enlargement in one or both breasts
There is dark or bloody discharge from the nipples
There is a skin sore or ulcer over the breast
A breast lump feels hard or firm
Note: Gynecomastia in children who have not yet reached puberty should always be checked by a health care provider.
What to expect at your health care provider’s office
Your health care provider will take a medical history and perform a
Medical history questions may include:
- Is one or both breasts involved?
- What is the age and gender of the patient?
- What medications is the person taking?
- How long has gynecomastia been present?
- Is the gynecomastia staying the same, getting better, or getting worse?
- What other symptoms are present?
Testing may not be necessary, but the following tests may be done to rule out certain diseases:
- Liver and kidney function studies
If an underlying condition is found, it is treated. Your physician should consider all medications that may be causing the problem. Gynecomastia during puberty usually goes away on its own.
Breast enlargement that is extreme, uneven, or does not go away may be embarrassing for an adolescent boy. Treatments that may be used in rare situations are:
Hormone treatment that blocks the effects of estrogens
Breast reduction surgery