Malignant hyperthermia is disease passed down through families that causes a fast rise in body temperature (
This condition is not the same as hyperthermia that is due to medical emergencies such as
Hyperthermia – malignant; Hyperpyrexia – malignant
Malignant hyperthermia is inherited. Only one parent has to carry the disease for a child to inherit the condition.
It may occur with muscle diseases such as multiminicore myopathy and central core disease (autosomal dominant).
- Dark brown urine
- Muscle ache without an obvious cause, such as exercise or injury
Muscle rigidityand stiffness
- Quick rise in body temperature to 105 degrees F or higher
Exams and tests
Malignant hyperthermia is often discovered after a patient is given anesthesia during surgery.
There may be a family history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained death during anesthesia.
The person may have a fast and often
Tests that may be done include:
- Blood clotting studies (PT, or prothombin time; PTT, or partial thrombloplastin time)
Chem-20, including CPK (creatinine phosphokinase, a muscle protein destroyed during the acute illness)
- Genetic testing to look for defects in the RYR1 gene
Muscle biopsy Urine myoglobin(muscle protein) determination
During an episode of malignant hyperthermia, wrapping the patient in a cooling blanket can help reduce fever and the risk of serious complications. Drugs such as dantrolene, lidocaine, or a beta-blocker drug can help with heart rhythm problems.
To preserve kidney function during an episode, you must get fluids through a vein and by mouth, as well as certain medications.
Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States –
Repeated episodes or untreated episodes can cause kidney failure. Untreated episodes can be fatal.
- Breakdown of muscle tissue (
rhabdomyolysis) Compartment syndrome(swelling of the hands and feet and problems with blood flow and nerve function)
- Disseminating intravascular coagulation (abnormal blood clotting and bleeding)
- Heart rhythm problems
- Kidney failure
- Respiratory dysfunction (fluid buildup in the lungs)
- Weak muscles (myopathy) or
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Tell both the surgeon and anesthesiologist before having any surgery if:
You know that you or a member of your family has had problems with general anesthesia
You know you have a family history of malignant hyperthermia
If you or anyone in your family has malignant hyperthermia it is very important to tell your doctor, especially before having surgery with general anesthesia. Using certain medications can prevent the complications of malignant hyperthermia during surgery.
Avoid stimulant drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine (speed), and ecstasy. These drugs may cause problems similar to malignant hyperthermia in people who are prone to this condition.
Genetic counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant hyperthermia.