Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that results in swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (also known as meningococcus).
Most cases of meningococcal meningitis occur in children and teens. Meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children and a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults.
The infection occurs more often in winter or spring. It may cause local epidemics at boarding schools, college dormitories, or military bases.
Risk factors include recent exposure to meningococcal meningitis and a recent upper respiratory infection.
Symptoms usually come on quickly, and may include:
Mental status changes
Nausea and vomiting
Purple, bruise-like areas (
Rash, pinpoint red spots ( petechiae)
Sensitivity to light (
Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:
Bulging fontanellesin infants
- Decreased consciousness
- Poor feeding or irritability in children
- Rapid breathing
- Unusual posture with the head and neck arched backwards (
Signs and tests
The doctor or nurse will examine the patient. This will show:
Fast heart rate
Mental status changes
If the health care provider thinks meningitis is possible, a lumbar puncture (“
Tests that may be done include:
CT scan of the head
White blood cell (WBC) count
Antibiotics should be started as soon as possible. Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics for meningococcal meningitis. Penicillin in high doses is almost always effective, too.
If the patient is allergic to penicillin, chloramphenicol may be used. Sometimes corticosteroids may be used, especially in children.
People in close contact with someone who has meningococcal meningitis should be given antibiotics to prevent infection. Such people include:
Roommates in dormitories
Those who come into close and long-term contact with an infected person
Early treatment improves the outcome. Death is possible. Young children and adults over 50 have the highest risk of death.
- Brain damage
- Hearing loss
Hydrocephalus Myocarditis Seizures Subdural effusion(buildup of fluid between the skull and brain)
Calling your health care provider
Call the local emergency number (such as 911) or go to an emergency room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following symptoms:
Persistent unexplained fever
Call the local emergency number if you develop any of the serious symptoms listed above. Meningitis can quickly become a life-threatening illness.
All family and close contacts (especially in health care or school settings) of people with this type of meningitis should begin antibiotic treatment as soon as possible to prevent spread of the infection. Ask your health care provider about this during the first visit.
Close contacts in the same household, school, or day care center should be watched for early signs of the disease as soon as the first case is diagnosed. Always use good hygiene habits, such as washing hands before and after changing a diaper, or after using the bathroom.
Vaccines are effective for controlling epidemics. They are currently recommended for:
College students in their first year living in dormitories
Travelers to certain parts of the world