Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Spontaneous peritonitis is usually caused by infection of
Risk factors for liver disease include excessive alcohol use and other diseases that lead to cirrhosis, such as chronic viral hepatitis (
Spontaneous peritonitis also occurs in patients who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure.
Peritonitis may also occur due to inflammation, infection, or injury of the intestines. Examples include appendicitis or diverticulitis.
Abdominal painand bloating
tenderness Fever Low urine output
Other symptoms include:
Chills Joint pain Nausea and vomiting
Signs and tests
Tests will be done to check for infection and rule out other causes of abdominal pain:
White blood cell count in a sample of peritoneal fluid
Chemical examination of peritoneal fluid
Culture of peritoneal fluid
- CT scan or ultrasound of the abdomen
Treatment depends on the cause of the
Surgery may be needed if peritonitis is caused by a foreign object, such as a catheter used in peritoneal dialysis.
Antibiotics may control infection in cases of spontaneous peritonitis with liver or kidney disease.
Intravenoustherapy can treat dehydration.
You may need to stay in the hospital so health care providers can rule out other causes of peritonitis, such as
The infection can usually be treated. However, kidney or
Hepatic encephalopathy Hepatorenal syndrome Sepsis
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of peritonitis. This can quickly become an emergency situation.
Patients with peritoneal catheters should be treated with sterile techniques. In cases of liver failure, antibiotics may help prevent peritonitis from coming back. Antibiotics may be used to prevent peritonitis if you have acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to certain health conditions.