Swelling is the enlargement of organs, skin, or other body parts. It is caused by a buildup of fluid in the tissues. The extra fluid can lead to a rapid increase in weight over a short period of time (days to weeks).
Swelling can occur all over the body (generalized) or only in one part of the body (localized).
Slight swelling (edema) of the lower legs is common in warm summer months, especially if a person has been standing or walking a lot.
General swelling, or massive edema (also called anasarca), is a common sign in people who are very sick. Although slight edema may be hard to detect, a large amount of swelling is very obvious.
Edema is described as pitting or non-pitting.
- Pitting edema leaves a dent in the skin after you press the area with a finger for about 5 seconds. The dent will slowly fill back in.
- Non-pitting edema does not leave this type of dent when pressing on the swollen area.
Acute glomerulonephritis Burns, including sunburn
- Chronic kidney disease
- Liver failure from
cirrhosis Nephrotic syndrome
- Poor nutrition
- Thyroid disease
- Too little
albuminin the blood (hypoalbuminemia)
- Too much salt or sodium
- Use of certain drugs, including
- Androgenic and anabolic steroids
- Calcium channel blockers
- Certain blood pressure medicines
- Corticosteroids such as prednisone
- Diabetes medicines called thiazolidinediones
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Follow your doctor’s treatment recommendations. If you have long-term swelling, ask your doctor about the options to prevent skin breakdown, such as:
Lamb’s wool pad
Continue with your everyday activities. When lying down, keep your arms and legs above your heart level, if possible, so the fluid can drain. However, do not do this if you get
Call your health care provider if
If you notice any unexplained swelling, contact your health care provider.
What to expect at your health care provider’s office
Except in emergency situations (such as
Medical history questions may include:
- Time pattern
- When did you first notice this?
- Do you have it all the time?
- Does it come and go?
- How much swelling is there?
- When you poke the area with a finger, does the dent stay?
- Is it overall or in one area (localized)?
- If swelling is in a specific area, what is that area?
- What seems to make the swelling better?
- What seems to make the swelling worse?
- What other symptoms do you have?
Tests that may be done include:
- Albumin blood test
Blood electrolyte levels Echocardiography ECG Kidney function tests Liver function tests Urinalysis X-rays
Treatment may include avoiding salt, diuretics, or water pills. Your fluid intake and output should be monitored, and you should be weighed daily.
Avoid alcohol if