Tenosynovitis is inflammation of the lining of the sheath that surrounds a tendon (the cord that joins muscle to bone).
Inflammation of the tendon sheath
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The synovium is a lining of the protective sheath that covers tendons. Tenosynovitis is inflammation of this sheath. The cause of the inflammation may be unknown, or it may result from:
Diseases that cause inflammation
The wrists, hands, and feet are commonly affected. However, the condition may occur with any tendon sheath.
Note: An infected cut to the hands or wrists that causes tenosynovitis may be an emergency requiring surgery.
- Difficulty moving a joint
Joint swellingin the affected area Painand tenderness around a joint, especially the hand, wrist, foot, or ankle
- Pain when moving a joint
- Redness along the length of the tendon
Fever, swelling, and redness may indicate an infection, especially if a puncture or cut caused these symptoms.
Signs and tests
The goal of treatment is to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Rest or keeping the affected tendons still is essential for recovery.
You may want to use a splint or a removable brace to help keep the tendons still. Applying heat or cold to the affected area should help reduce the pain and inflammation.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Local injections of corticosteroids may be useful as well. Some patients need surgery to remove the inflammation surrounding the tendon, but this is not common.
Tenosynovitis caused by infection needs immediate treatment. Your health care provider will prescribe antibiotics. In some severe cases, surgery may be needed to release the pus around the tendon.
If there is no infection, a steroid injection may be used to decrease inflammation along the tendon sheath.
After you have recovered, do strengthening exercises using the muscles around the affected tendon to help prevent the injury from coming back.
Most people fully recover with treatment. However, if the condition is caused by overuse and the activity is not stopped, tenosynovitis is likely to come back. In chronic conditions, the tendon may be damaged and recovery may be slow or incomplete.
Antibiotics are necessary for tenosynovitis caused by infection. Without prompt treatment, permanent stiffness or pain may occur.
If tenosynovitis is not treated, the tendon may become permanently restricted or it may tear (rupture). The affected joint can become stiff.
Infection in the tendon may spread to other places in the body, which could be serious and threaten the affected limb.
Calling your health care provider
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have pain or
Avoiding repetitive movements and overuse of tendons may help prevent tenosynovitis.
Use the appropriate wound care techniques to clean cuts to the hand, wrist, and feet.